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iStock/Thinkstock(WASHINGTON) — With President-elect Donald Trump pledging to "repeal and replace” the Affordable Care Act (ACA), many have been looking for signs of what a replacement plan might look like. One clue may be a plan proposed in 2015 by Trump’s pick for Secretary of Health and Human Services, Rep. Tom Price, R-Georgia, who faces his Senate confirmation hearing Wednesday.

Price, who has been a longtime critic of the ACA, is a member of the House GOP Doctors Caucus, which is made up of congressional members who are doctors and focuses on developing “patient-centered” health care policy. He also served for several years as chairman of the Republican Study Committee, a large and influential conservative House caucus.

A year after the ACA passed, Price released a statement calling the law "a costly and misguided encroachment of government that will destroy jobs and drive our nation further toward a fiscal crisis."

He characterized the law as "failing" and argued that it should be replaced.

"The purpose of health reform should be to advance accessibility, affordability, quality, responsiveness, and innovation," Price said at the time. "None of these are improved by Obamacare. They are threatened by Obamacare because the goal of this law is to expand authority for the government, not opportunity and choices for the American people."

Price's Proposal to Repeal the ACA


In 2015, Price introduced a bill called the Empowering Patients First Act of 2015 in the House.

In the legislation, he proposed an increase in the amount people could contribute to their health savings accounts, expanding tax-deductible contributions and allowing the accounts to pay some primary care fees.

The proposal also included a requirement that HHS would "provide a grant to each state for high-risk pools or reinsurance pools to subsidize health insurance for high-risk populations and individuals."

High-risk health pools could be used to give people who are often challenged in finding affordable insurance, due to pre-existing conditions, age or other factors, another outlet to find insurance outside their employer-based coverage.

Prior to the ACA, many states had high-risk pools to cover residents who otherwise would not be insured because of pre-existing conditions. The Kaiser Family Foundation found that state high-risk pools often had significantly higher premiums and likely included just a fraction of people who needed coverage.

Under the ACA, insurance companies are mandated to provide coverage to people with pre-existing conditions and prohibited from charging them higher premiums. Insurers also cannot charge women more than men.

Price's proposed legislation calls for individuals to receive tax credits to help pay for medical coverage. The plan increases the tax credits as a person ages, with a top level of $3,000. Tax credits, tax deductions and authorized funds in this plan could not be used to fund most abortions.

Under the ACA, federal tax subsidies are given based on income up to a certain level based on the state.

Federal protections for pre-existing conditions would be weakened, but not entirely eliminated under Price's 2015 proposal. Insurance companies could potentially charge up to 150 percent of standard premiums for two years, if the individual has not had continuous health insurance for the last 18 months.

His plan also proposed allowing individuals to opt out of government health care programs like Medicare or Medicaid and receive a tax credit instead. Medicare patients would be able to pick doctors outside the Medicare system without penalty.

Additionally, the bill proposed a transfer of power to states to govern health insurance laws, which could possibly eliminate current federal pre-existing condition rules in favor of giving states incentives to pass their own laws governing the protection.

The 'Better Way' Proposal


Price has also publicly supported Representative Paul Ryan's call for repealing and replacing the ACA, using his "Better Way" plan.

In an op-ed published by the Journal for the American Medical Association (JAMA) Forum, Price and members of the House GOP Doctors Caucus wrote that they supported aspects of Ryan's plan "such as expanding health savings accounts, providing portable financial assistance for health insurance, and making it easier for individuals and small businesses to pool together to purchase health insurance."

Ryan’s plan also cites Price's 2015 proposed legislation.

Among the changes proposed in Ryan's plan, individuals could create group-plan coverage outside of their workplace, get tax credits to offset the cost of health care and buy health insurance across state lines.

The proposal also allows health insurance companies to open up the age ratio to bring down costs for younger consumers. Currently, the ACA has a 1 to 3 ratio for young to old patients, meaning the cost of a plan for the oldest patients cannot by more than three times as expensive as the plan for the youngest patient. The "Better Plan" proposal seeks to allow a 1 to 5 ratio for insurance payment plans.

The non-partisan RAND Corporation, a public policy think tank, modeled the proposed change in ratio and found "premiums increase even more, and enrollment falls further."

Similar to Price's legislation, Ryan's plan would provide Medicare and Medicaid enrollees a fixed amount of money to apply towards health insurance rather than offering coverage through the government.

Christine Eibner, a senior economist and professor at Pardee RAND Graduate School, who authored the policy paper with the age ratio model, said that giving Medicare and Medicaid enrollees a tax credit instead could ease the cost burden on the government but possibly redirect it to consumers.

"It reduces federal government obligations over time," Eibner explained, saying it would be simpler because the cost per enrollee would remain the same.

"The drawback with an approach like this is it puts the risk of increased spending on the enrollee," Eibner said, "if it causes premiums to go up and it's not taken into account."

Pre-existing Conditions


Despite his 2015 plan outlined in the JAMA Forum op-ed, Price and his co-authors said they wanted to continue coverage for pre-existing conditions.

"We believe in providing preexisting condition protections and bringing fairness to insurance premiums by addressing the cost drivers in health care, including medical malpractice improvements to address the practice of defensive medicine and changing the age-rating ratio," the doctors wrote. "Let us be clear: no one is talking about returning to the pre-ACA status quo, but there is a better way to achieve health system reform in this country."

The Affordable Care Act, aimed at making health insurance available to more people and overhauling the complicated healthcare industry in the U.S., has been the subject of conservative scrutiny and scorn since it passed in 2010.

Congressional Republicans have tried to repeal the law numerous times under President Barack Obama. While the law has drawn scorn from some due to increasing premiums, it has also won praise as the number of uninsured Americans has continued to drop and the growth of health care costs has slowed.

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- A growing number of people are putting the "AH" in "namaste," thanks to a new workout: Beer Yoga.

Apparently having got its start at Burning Man in the States, Mashable reports the idea quickly spread back to the spiritual birthplace of beer, Germany, where hipsters in Berlin quickly began organizing classes. From there, it spread to Australia.

According to Berlin-based BierYoga's website, the class is the, "marriage of two great loves—beer and yoga," and, "Both are centuries-old therapies for mind, body and soul."

"BeerYoga is fun but it's no joke," founder and yogi Jhula writes. "We take the philosophies of yoga and pair it with the pleasure of beer-drinking to reach your highest level of consciousness."

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Ingram Publishing/ThinkstockBy DR. JENNIFER ASHTON, ABC News Senior Medical Contributor

It’s common for mothers to undergo ultrasounds during pregnancy. They’re used to look inside the uterus and check development of the baby. But a new study out of the U.K. shows that complementing those ultrasounds with an MRI is even more effective at spotting abnormalities in the baby’s brain.

The study of nearly 600 pregnant women showed ultrasounds accurately detected problems 68 percent of the time. But when combined with an MRI, that accuracy jumped to 93 percent.

Here’s my take: There are many types of tests that pregnant women undergo but it’s important to remember that imaging tests like sonograms or MRIs are not perfect. And while they can describe the structure of fetal organs, they can’t tell us how those fetal parts will function.

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — Celebrity trainer Harley Pasternak is bringing his exclusive "Legsanity" workout to a special GMA live stream.

"This workout is all about toning, tightening, sculpting an incredible lower body," he told GMA. "The lower body is the foundation of the whole body. Without strong legs, there is no strong body."

Pasternak, a best-selling author and Fitbit Ambassador, is leading a workout live-streamed on ABCNews.com/live and on the GMA Facebook page Wednesday. Fitbit is a sponsor of Good Morning America.

Watch the video above to join the live-stream workout. Read below for all you need to know about the routine and more tips from Pasternak.

It's important to mix up your routine to see results, Pasternak says.

"Doing the same workout every time can be repetitive — and boring. It also might cause you to plateau, or worse, cause injury. So try to keep things fresh by mixing cardio with weight training," he told GMA.

What You Need

  • Space to move around
  • Mat

'Legsanity' Live Stream Overview

The overview and tips below are provided from the trainer and have been edited for clarity.


Start with cardio warm up, alternating between these five movements for 1 minute each:

  • March in Place
  • Jog
  • Jumping Jacks
  • Jump Imaginary Rope
  • Shadow Box

Then, it's onto "Legsanity." Do 1 minute of each move with a 1-minute cardio burst in between.

  • Body-Weight Squat
  • March/Jump Rope
  • Reverse Lunge
  • March/Jump Rope
  • Skater Lunge
  • March/Jump Rope
  • Jump Squat
  • March/Jump Rope
  • Jump Lunge
  • March/Jump Rope
  • Good Mornings
  • March/Jump Rope
  • Glute/Ham Walk
  • March/Jump Rope

Pasternak's Tips for the Workout

  • Keep breathing.
  • Focus on your form.
  • Go at your own pace and listen to your body. If your ankles or knees are hurting, try modifying the routine to see if there’s something more comfortable for your joints.

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iStock/Thinkstock(AURORA, Ill.) — Illinois brothers Jose and Ivan Favela are used to sharing the spotlight: They announced their engagements on the same day, they married their wives, side by side, in a joint wedding ceremony, and on Sunday, they both welcomed their first-born children, ABC-owned station WLS reported.

"He said, 'You're going to be an uncle.' I was telling him, 'You're going to be an uncle too,'" Jose Favela told WLS.

The baby boys, Rodrigo and Josue, were born just steps away from each other in neighboring hospital rooms at Rush-Copley Medical Center in Aurora, Illinois. The newborn cousins were not due on the same day, the family said.

The infants' mothers were thrilled, WLS reported. "I'm happy for them, and us too," said Sarai Duran. Added Elvia Chaidez, "I guess we just have to enjoy it. A big party all the time."

This is not the first time that first cousins have been born there on the same day, the hospital said, but given the brothers' shared history, this situation was especially serendipitous, WLS reported.

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Nicole Duggan(DUBLIN) -- One mom's New Year's resolution has been far more successful than she planned.

"I never expected it to get around Ireland, let alone get to America," Nicole Duggan told ABC News.

The Cork, Ireland, mom's Facebook post is being shared around the world. Her son, Riley, is 3 years old and has autism.

"I have wanted to post it for a long time, and I never did," Duggan said. "But I just decided that now was the time and 2017 was the year we would make a difference and try to spread awareness."

The post is intended for parents, not children.

"I always find it is the parents that have a problem," she said. "We have been in situations where parents have pulled their child away from Riley in playgrounds and it is so hurtful for me. But thankfully, Riley doesn't notice as such."

"Kids never treat him any differently. The innocence is lovely. They love to play and so does he, and that is all they see," Duggan said.

Her post reads in part: "My little boy is just like your child, he loves to dance, he loves to be cuddled, he cries when he falls, and he adores Mickey Mouse. He is however 'wired differently.'"

"The small things we take for granted every day are the hardest things for him to cope with. Different lights, sounds, smells or even the look of something can cause an overload that is too hard for an adult to deal with, let alone my little boy. 'Normal things' such as going shopping, playing in a kids play zone, or even a hair cut can be unbearable for him," the Facebook post continues.

"To the people that stare at him because he hums, join in with his little singsong, because in his eyes he is singing the best song in the world."

"To the mothers that pull their children away from him, you are creating the bullys [sic] of the future," she said in the post.

She told ABC News, "I am only doing what all parents of kids with autism do, and that is ask for acceptance. I'm just crazy enough to put it online."

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Courtesy Susan Hatfield(COLUMBUS, Ohio) -- Hundreds of strangers have raised more than $40,000 so that a 108-year-old woman can stay in her assisted living home in Columbus, Ohio.

Carrie Lou Rausch has been living at the home, Sunrise on the Scioto, for the past three years since she was 105, according to her 67-year-old daughter, Susan Hatfield.

"To put it delicately, I didn't know she would live to be 108, and towards the end of last year, I knew she was getting low on funds," Hatfield told ABC News Tuesday.

Since Sunrise on the Scioto does not accept Medicaid, Rausch was facing the possibility of having to move from the facility and the community she had grown to love and call home, Hatfield said.

"I was looking into Medicaid-funded facilities that she could move to, but most of what's out there were not really what she is used to now," she said. "I visited a couple of nursing homes, and the rooms [...] felt a lot more like a hospital than a home. It was a lot more impersonal than the setting she had right now."

Hatfield did note, though, that she was grateful the state's Medicaid program "had this last resort option if it came down to it."

In a last ditch effort to keep her mother at her current assisted living facility, Hatfield said she started a GoFundMe campaign in October 2016.

The crowdfunding campaign received a few donations here and there, mainly from friends and family, but it was not until local news stations covered Rausch's 108th birthday this past Jan. 3 that hundreds of strangers began to donate to the account.

Last week, more than 800 donors raised the campaign's goal amount of $40,000 -- the cost of living at Sunrise on the Scioto for a year, according to Hatfield.

As of Tuesday afternoon, the GoFundMe has raised over $56,000.

Hatfield told ABC News that she would be keeping campaign open for a little while longer, and any additional funds raised would be used to support her mother into the following year. Funds that go unused will be donated to her mother's church, she said.

"This whole campaign started small and grew little by little, and then suddenly just exploded," she said. "It's just a miracle."

On an update to the GoFundMe page, Hatfield wrote, "What an amazing testament to the existence of basic human kindness in a time when it sometimes seems in short supply."

Sunrise Senior Living, which manages Sunrise on the Scioto, told ABC News in a statement today, "We are so pleased that Ms. Rausch will remain at our community and are moved by the outpouring of support for her and the entire team who care for her. It is always our hope and intention that all of our residents remain here for as long as they wish, and we strive to support our families to help make this possible."

In a video posted to Facebook, Rausch said, "It makes me feel wonderful that I have a lot of people who care. I want to say, 'Bless you, all, and I appreciate it and I really, really thank you!"

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moodboard/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- Although asthma is considered a chronic disease, doctors have been puzzled by its often changing nature that can makes prescribing medicine, or stopping them, tricky.

A study published Tuesday in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) found that about one-third of adults tested for the study, who had been diagnosed with asthma in the previous five years, showed no evidence of the condition during later follow-up examinations and testing.

"We see a lot of people who were told they have asthma and we can't confirm it," Dr. Richard Lockey, the director of Allergy and Immunology at the University of South Florida College of Medicine, who was not involved in the study, told ABC News.

The reverse can also be true, he said; a person can test negative for asthma after the most sophisticated tests and still exhibit symptoms two years later.

He said the variation in the disease makes him wary to declare someone asthma-free if they have had symptoms in the past and were diagnosed.

"It's a very, very complicated disease," Lockey said.

This study in part aimed to limit exposure to asthma medications for adults who many no longer need it. The 613 participants were given multiple tests and examinations to determine if they had signs of asthma. Researchers from multiple institutions, including the University of Manitoba and the University of Ottawa, determined that 203 participants, or approximately 33 percent, did not have baseline symptoms of asthma after the initial examination. During a 15-month follow-up six participants ended up exhibiting signs of asthma and again returned to their asthma medication.

Some limitations of the research included the time interval studied and other medical conditions participants may have had. "Participants in whom current asthma was ruled out were followed for up to 15 months, but it is possible that some patients in remission, such as those with intermittent asthma provoked by specific allergens, could experience subsequent recurrence of asthma beyond a 15-month follow-up period. The sensitivity of bronchial challenge tests to detect asthma is 98% but not 100%," the study said. The test can also be falsely positive in patients with allergies or smokers.

Asthma can be a tricky disease to diagnose since other conditions, such as acid reflux and vocal cord dysfunction syndrome, can mimic the symptoms of asthma.

Dr. Todd Rambasek, an associate professor at the Ohio College of Osteopathic Medicine and fellow for the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, said some people are diagnosed at primary care physician's office, who may mistake similar conditions for asthma.

"It's not surprising ... people are often over treated with asthma medication," said Rambasek, explaining taking extra asthma medication will not cause as severe side effects as other common medication such as blood pressure medication or diabetic medication.

Additionally he said a person's asthma symptoms and severity can change over time. Ramasek said some medical studies have shown people with a childhood diagnosis of asthma usually have diminished symptoms as adults.

"It's a dynamic thing, it varies and comes and goes," Rambasek said of asthma.

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iStock/Thinkstock(WASHINGTON) -- Repealing Obamacare without replacement could leave 18 million Americans without health insurance within a year and 32 million by 2026, according to a new estimate from the nonpartisan Congressional Budget Office.

The estimate, prepared at the request of Senate Democrats, is based on the partial repeal bill Republicans sent to President Obama's desk in 2015. Obama vetoed the measure and Congress was not able to override it.

The office also estimated that individual health insurance premiums would increase by 20-25 percent in the first year of a repeal, and would hit 50 percent after the elimination of the Affordable Care Act's Medicaid expansion.

Democrats seized on the new figures Tuesday, following rallies around the country opposing GOP plans to repeal and replace Obamacare.

“The CBO’s nonpartisan report shows that Republicans’ plan to repeal the Affordable Care Act will be nothing less than a nightmare for the American people," House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, D-Calif., said in a statement.

House Speaker Paul Ryan's office pushed back against the CBO analysis, which focused on a partial repeal bill without a replacement or any administration actions, both of which Republicans say they plan to implement.

“This projection is meaningless, as it takes into account no measures to replace the law nor actions that the incoming administration will take to revitalize the individual market that has been decimated by Obamacare," Ryan spokesperson AshLee Strong said in a statement.

Republicans agree on repealing and replacing Obamacare -- in conjunction with executive actions and administrative rules to ease any transition -- but are still divided on the timeline and details of any replacement effort.

Ryan and Vice President-elect Mike Pence have said Obamacare will be replaced within the first 100 days of the administration. Republicans also hope to hold a repeal vote as early as next month.

Trump told the Washington Post his plan is "very much formulated down to the final strokes," and will be put forward when his pick for Health and Human Services secretary, Rep. Tom Price, R-Ga., is confirmed.

Aides to Republican leaders in the House and Senate have yet to see any details of Trump's plan.

Trump also told the Post “We’re going to have insurance for everybody,” closer to "universal coverage" than the "universal access" Hill Republicans say their plan will offer.

Still, Republicans are downplaying any tension in their plans for healthcare.

"We are on the same page," Ryan said Monday in an interview with Wisconsin news station WISC-TV. "We are all working on this together, working hand-in-glove with the new administration."

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Karwai Tang/WireImage(LONDON) -- Prince William, Duchess Kate and Prince Harry marked the New Year with their first joint engagement Tuesday to raise awareness of their high-profile mental health campaign.

The royal trio, who founded Heads Together to change the conversation on mental health, arrived at the Institute of Contemporary Art in central London for a briefing on their upcoming plans for the next phase of their mental health charity.

William spoke first at the event, encouraging people to open up about their challenges in life.

"There are times when, whoever we are, it is hard to cope with challenges – and when that happens being open and honest and asking for help is life-changing," William, 34, told those in attendance. "Talking to someone else is a positive and confident step to take but for too long it has been a case of 'keep quiet and carry on.'”

"As a result, too many people have suffered in silence for too long, and the effects of this can be devastating," he said.

Kate, 35, then addressed the crowd.

"We have seen that two heads are better than one when dealing with a mental health problem," she said. "William, Harry and I have been very privileged to witness in the course of our work countless examples of simple conversations that have changed lives, which were the first step on a path to recovery.”

She continued, "So the question that William, Harry and I have asked ourselves is how we can get more people to start talking? How do we encourage people to take the first step.”

William, Kate and Harry see 2017 as a "tipping point" and hope they can get more people to speak about mental health without fear of judgment. They have chosen to tackle an often taboo subject that so often gets brushed under the rug.

"If we succeed with this, we will have taken a powerful step in normalizing mental health as an issue in our society, thinking about it as we do our own physical health," Kate said.

In his closing remarks, Harry, 32, echoed the importance of their mission to make it easier for the young and the old to reach out for help.

"In the past, the phrase 'mental health' would be translated to mental illness. But thankfully that is changing," Harry said.

Harry joined his brother and sister-in-law after spending a romantic holiday in Norway seeing the Northern Lights with American actress Meghan Markle. The Suits star and Harry have also reportedly been spending time together inside Kensington Palace since the New Year.

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iStock/ThinkstockBy DR. JENNIFER ASHTON, ABC News Senior Medical Contributor

When we hear the expression “Baby Brain,” most of us associate it with forgetfulness or absent-mindedness. But the findings of a small study suggest otherwise.

Researchers compared brain scans of women from before pregnancy and after delivery and found some significant and surprising structural changes taking place within the mother’s brain -- changes that may help her bond with her baby.

The theory is that these areas of the brain help streamline functions involved in vigilance, teaching and nurturing.

Here’s my take: I think we should keep this information in the medical and scientific realm and not let it jump the track to social, ethical or political implications. If science can explain reasons behind some of the physical and functional changes that occur during pregnancy, I’m all for it.

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Amazon(NEW YORK) -- Amazon.com is now one of seven online food retailers that will soon accept food stamps, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).

The retail firms will be involved in a two-year pilot program allowing participants of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) to purchase their groceries online.

"Online purchasing is a potential lifeline for SNAP participants living in urban neighborhoods and rural communities where access to healthy food choices can be limited," USDA Secretary Tom Vilsack said in a statement. "We're looking forward to being able to bring the benefits of the online market to low-income Americans participating in SNAP."

The program so far only includes Amazon customers in Maryland, New Jersey, and New York, but USDA said it anctipates additional retailers to be included in the future when the pilot phase is successfully completed.

The selected firms for the pilot program include:

  • Amazon - Maryland, New Jersey, New York
  • FreshDirect - New York
  • Safeway - Maryland, Oregon, Washington,
  • ShopRite - Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania
  • Hy-Vee, Inc. - Iowa
  • Hart's Local Grocers - New York (based in Rochester)
  • Dash's Market - New York (based in Buffalo)

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Meghan Tucker (NEW YORK) -- One woman is set to tackle an amazing feat -- running seven marathons in seven days on seven different continents.

That accomplishment would be amazing in itself. But for BethAnn Telford, who says she continues battling brain cancer, the task is awe-inspiring.

Telford, 47, said she was diagnosed with brain cancer in 2005. After "several brain surgeries," she told ABC News that she still has active cancer cells in her body that affect her in a number of ways.

She said hasn't driven in 12 years because she has seizures often "and I have no sight in my left eye." Her brain cancer also affected her bladder, she said, which led to a surgery for a major bladder augmentation.

Telford said her bladder is one of the things she has to really keep an eye on when participating in the 2017 World Marathon Challenge that has 33 participants from 13 different countries competing. Over the seven days, they'll each spend 59 hours in flight spanning more than 23,600 miles.

"My bladder can only hold a shot glass of liquid," she explained. "I self catheter so when I go to the bathroom ... during the marathons, I just don’t go into the jiffy pot. I have to keep it clean and sterilized."

The first marathon is in Union Glacier, Antarctica, on Jan. 23. Telford and the other competitors will then run in Chile, the United States, Spain, Morocco, the United Arab Emirates and Australia.

Telford knows she won't be the first to cross the finish line. For Telford, her participation is much bigger than winning.

Telford, who started running marathons 15 years ago, said she's running to raise funds for pediatric cancer research. It's especially important for her to invest in children.

"Since I wasn’t able to have kids, I’ve 'adopted' hundreds and hundreds of children [with pediatric cancer] where I’ve tried to instill in them, and their families, that there’s hope," she said. "Their last stop is the hospital. They don’t come home with their parents, unfortunately, and it saddens me that we can’t find a cure."

During the marathons, Telford said she'll be running with pictures of those children clipped to her race belt. She'll also be wearing New Balance running shoes, decorated by the children.

"I know that when I look down, these kids are with me and that's what's going to get me through this," Telford said.

The government worker, who lives in Washington, D.C., has been training four times a day to prepare for these races.

"I wake up at 3:30 in the morning, run, or I do core strength training," she detailed. After going to work, she'll finish the day by doing yoga or swimming.

Since 2005, Telford said she's raised more than $835,000. But with these series of marathons she hopes to cross the million-dollar mark.

She'll be donating the funds she raises to a Washington, D.C.-based non-profit Accelerate Brain Cancer Cure, co-founded by Steve and Jean Case. Steve Case is also known for co-founding AOL.

"It means so much to the entire brain tumor community across the world because what BethAnn is doing is raising awareness about this devastating disease," Nicola Beddow, Director of Communications and Partnerships for Accelerate Brain Cancer Cure, told ABC News. "And then she’s also raising dollars for research; we invest in cutting-edge research to develop new treatments for brain cancer because sadly they’re just not enough right now."

Along with raising money, the marathoner wants to spread hope. The word "hope" is so important to her that she has it tattooed on her left inner wrist.

"This is not a tough endeavor for me. It sounds like it is, but the toughest thing in my life to date, at 47, is telling my mother and father that their child has brain cancer," Telford said.

"Nothing compares to that -- going through chemo, brain surgeries, and even [facing] death," she continued. "I know I can do this. It’s just one step in front of the other."

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- The rise of drug-resistant bacterial "superbugs" have been a concern of public health officials for years, but the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has reported a worse-case scenario -- a woman with a bacterial infection that was resistant to all Food and Drug Adminstration-approved treatments.

A Nevada woman died in September after being infected with type of drug-resistant bacteria called Klebsiella pneumonaiae that was resistant to all antibiotics available in the U.S., the CDC reported on Friday.

The woman was in her 70's when she arrived at the hospital in August 2016 with signs of sepsis. She had been in India years before and had been treated for a broken leg and bone infection, according to the CDC. After doing tests, her doctors found the bacteria -- which belonged to a class of drug-resistant bugs called carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) -- were resistant to all forms of FDA-approved antibiotics. The patient died in September after going into septic shock, according to the CDC.

The woman's extremely rare infection has focused attention on the increasing problems surrounding these drug-resistant infections and the lack of antibiotics available to treat them.

Fewer New Antibiotics Being Developed


No matter how effective an antibiotic is at killing bacteria, new drugs will be needed as the bacteria mutate and grow more resistant to the existing drugs.

"Antibiotic resistance occurs as part of a natural evolution process, it can be significantly slowed but not stopped," the CDC notes on its website. "New antibiotics will always be needed to keep up with resistant bacteria as well as new diagnostic tests to track the development of resistance."

However, the number of drug applications for novel antibiotics being developed by pharmaceutical companies have been dropping steadily over the last three decades, according to the CDC.

From 1980 to 1984, there were nearly 20 FDA drug applications approved for new antibiotics, but from 2005 to 2009, there were fewer than five applications approved, according to the CDC.

In 2013, the CDC said developing new antibiotics and new diagnostic tests was one of its four core actions to stop antibiotic-resistant infections from increasing.

CRE Infections Are an 'Urgent Threat'

In 2013, CDC characterized CRE infections as an "urgent" threat, meaning the bacteria is an "immediate public health threat that requires urgent and aggressive action."

The bacteria cause 9,000 drug-resistant infections per year and 600 related deaths, according to the CDC.

While most drug-resistant CRE bacteria are still susceptible to one or more antibiotic, in the infection of the woman in her 70's reported by the CDC, the bacteria was resistant to all FDA-approved antibiotics, an extremely rare event.

CRE include common bacteria such as E.coli and Klebsiella bacteria.

Doctors Can Attempt to Treat Even Drug-Resistant Infections

When a patient has a drug-resistant bacteria, doctors will sometimes have to use harsher antibiotics or high dosages in order to try and fight the infection.

If a patient has a drug-resistant infection, doctors will work with a lab to test different doses of various antibiotics in an effort to overwhelm and kill the bacteria, said Dr. William Schaffner, an infectious disease expert at Vanderbilt University Medical Center.

However, antibiotics can be taxing on the patient, especially if they are older and with underlying medical conditions.

"This is the kind of calculation you do with every patient," Schaffner said. "Patients with underlying illnesses present a certain kind of challenge."

The CDC authors reported that an intravenous version of an antibiotic called fosfomycin is available in other countries but not for use in the U.S. It's unclear if the patient's doctors attempted to get an FDA exemption to use the drug and treat the patient.

Long Exposure to Antibiotics and Long Hospital Stays Can Be Dangerous

While this recently reported case is frightening, it is also unusual. The patient had been in and out of hospitals in India for two years after fracturing the large femur bone in her leg and developing a bone infection.

Long hospitals stays, especially in India, and exposure to different antibiotics can increase the likelihood of eventually developing a drug-resistant bacterial infection. As travel around the globe is becoming easier, it's increasingly important for doctors to find out where their patients may have acquired an infection, Schaffner said.

"India has a notorious reputation for this [type of bacteria,]" he noted. "Travel-related questions are becoming much more important ... and just reinforce that we are a very small world."

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- New research from Brigham Young University scientists suggests that not all people taking selfies are narcissists. In fact, there are three main types, the researchers discovered: Communicators, Autobiographers, and Self-Publicists.

Communicators, "take selfies primarily to engage their friends, family or followers in a conversation," according to the published study.

"They're all about two-way communication," explained coauthor and current student Maureen "Mo" Elinzano. See also: Anne Hathaway's "I voted" selfie snaps on Instagram.

Autobiographers, "use selfies as a tool to record key events in their lives and preserve significant memories." Such users, "want others to see their photos, they aren't necessarily seeking the feedback."

One example includes, NASA astronaut Scott Kelley, "who returned to Earth in 2016 after a year in space, chronicled his trip with a number of epic shots, including a full-blown space-suit selfie."

Self-publicists, are the ones we usually think about when it comes to selfie snappers, but it's, "actually the smallest of the three groups," researchers say.

"They are the people who love documenting their entire lives…hoping to present themselves and their stories in a positive light," said coauthor Harper Anderson. Examples abound -- from Kardashians to your standard duck-facing party people.

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