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Joe Raedle/Getty Images(NEW YORK) -- The pharmaceutical company criticized for increasing the price of the EpiPen announced Monday that it will create a generic version of the emergency allergy treatment that will cost about $300 for a pack of two injectors and will be available within a few weeks.

Mylan Pharmaceuticals' EpiPen, by far the most popular epinephrine auto-injector on the market, is used to help counteract life-threatening allergic reactions. The company has come under scrutiny in recent weeks after news surfaced that the price of a two-pack EpiPen has soared, rising from approximately $100 in 2009 to around $600 and more today, according to medical literature and various pharmacies nationwide.

"We understand the deep frustration and concerns associated with the cost of EpiPen to the patient, and have always shared the public's desire to ensure that this important product be accessible to anyone who needs it," Mylan CEO Heather Bresch said in a statement Monday. "Our decision to launch a generic alternative to EpiPen is an extraordinary commercial response, which required the cooperation of our partner. However, because of the complexity and opaqueness of today's branded pharmaceutical supply chain and the increased shifting of costs to patients as a result of high deductible health plans, we determined that bypassing the brand system in this case and offering an additional alternative was the best option."

Here are some key points on the issues around the EpiPen and the planned generic version of it:

Why Would a Company Release a Generic Version of Its Own Drug?

The company's decision to create a generic may seem surprising considering that many drugmakers often seek to protect their brand name drugs from competition in the marketplace. But experts say creating a generic version can be a smart move that allows the company to dominate the market.

To create its own generic, a pharmaceutical company will usually partner with another manufacturer that will produce a generic drug that is virtually indistinguishable from the name brand. Mylan Pharmaceuticals said it would coordinate with a partner on the generic drug.

"It is strategic," generally for a company to produce a generic version of its brand name drug, said Dr. Aaron Kesselheim, an associate professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and a faculty member in pharmacoepidemiology and pharmacoeconomics at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. "It makes the market look less hospitable for other generic alternatives."

There is currently one generic epinephrine injector on the market. Kesselheim said having two generics available is typically not enough to cause a major fall in prices.

Prices generally "don't drop until there are more than three or four generic competitors," said Kesselheim.

Many Pharmacists Cannot Just Swap Out EpiPen for a Generic


Rejoicing patients should be careful to check in with their doctors about the option of using a generic EpiPen.

Since the EpiPen is both a drug and a medical device (a BX designation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration,) pharmacists in many states can't simply swap out a name-brand for a cheaper generic in the same manner they will for other medications that are not medical devices. In 29 states, doctors will have to give out new prescriptions specifically for the generic EpiPen.

Generic drugs must have the same active ingredients as name-brand drugs and it’s commonplace for pharmacists to substitute generic medications for name-brand medications for patients, according to doctors.

Generic EpiPen Cost Remains High

While the estimated cost for the generic EpiPen will be approximately half of the name-brand price, it still could be a struggle for families to buy multiple injectors as each pack of two will cost approximately $300. While Mylan has announced different savings programs to help uninsured or under-insured customers gain access to the name-brand drug, it's not clear to what extent these programs will also be available for the generic EpiPen users.

The estimated cost for the only generic epinephrine two-pack auto injector currently on the market, according to GoodRx, ranges between $140 and $379, even with a coupon.

Mylan has not currently released a name for the generic EpiPen expected to be released later this year.

A study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association last week that examined U.S. drug prices found multiple reasons for high drug prices in the U.S. including patents on name-brand drugs and limited negotiating power for the consumer. In foreign countries with nationally regulated health systems, the health system can negotiate a bulk price for medication so that the price is regulated.

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — The belief that vaccines cause autism -- which has been debunked by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, among others -- is no longer the primary reason parents are refusing vaccines for their children, according to a new study Monday from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Instead, a growing number of parents believe vaccinations are "unnecessary," researchers found.

The AAP surveyed more than 600 pediatricians in 2006 and then again in 2013, asking them to estimate the percentage of parents they encountered who wished to refuse or delay vaccines and the parents' rationale for doing so. Pediatricians were also asked how often they dismissed patients from their practice for continuing to refuse vaccines.

By 2013, nearly 9 out of 10 pediatricians (87 percent) say they were asked by at least one parent in their practice to alter their child’s immunization schedule. Pediatricians in the study responded that 73 percent of parents refusing or delaying vaccines for their children in 2013 were doing so because the parents believed the vaccines were unnecessary, whereas that number was 64 percent in 2006.

Dr. Lolita McDavid, medical director of child advocacy and protection at the University Hospitals Rainbow Babies & Children’s Hospital in Cleveland, Ohio, said the findings did not surprise her.

“In the past, people were scared of polio and whooping cough, but parents aren’t now because they don’t see it anymore,” McDavid, who was not involved in this study, told ABC News. “It’s a very uninformed way to approach a child’s health.”

Dr. Catherine Hough-Telford, lead author on the paper and a pediatrician with the Pediatric Health Care Alliance in Tampa, Florida, told ABC News that “it will be interesting to look in future studies at how parents’ perceptions change after the Disneyland measles outbreak.” Disneyland is owned by Disney, the parent company of ABC News.

Vaccinations have prevented an estimated 322 million illnesses, 21 million hospitalizations and 732,000 deaths for Americans born between 1994 and 2013, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Communicable diseases that previously afflicted the population are now largely a distant memory due to the development of vaccines.

Pediatricians reported in 2013 being able to persuade hesitant parents to allow scheduled vaccinations only one-third of the time, according to the study. Understanding why parents are refusing or delaying vaccines is critical for doctors so they can tailor their counseling accordingly, researchers said.

“When I talk to families ... I always emphasize vaccines are safe, effective and they save lives,” Hough-Telford said. “We all want the same thing -- for the child to be healthy.”

Other reasons for vaccine delay were parental concern about causing discomfort for the child or concern for burdening the child’s immune system. The fear of autism as the reason for delaying vaccines fell to 64 percent in 2013 from 74 percent in 2006.

The study did not mention the specific vaccines that parents were refusing, which will be important for health care providers to explore. A study published this month in the journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention reported that many parents wanted to opt out of the Gardasil vaccine for HPV -- approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2006 -- because they thought the vaccine was unnecessary for their sexually inactive child. It is unclear if parents refusing the HPV vaccine would feel similarly about vaccines that protect against measles, whooping cough and tetanus.

Pediatricians in suburban and rural settings were more likely to see children whose parents wished to delay or avoid vaccinations than parents in urban settings, according to the AAP study, and the percentage of pediatricians "always" dismissing patients from their practice for continued vaccine refusal nearly doubled from 6 percent to 11 percent between 2006 and 2013.

McDavid said she is one of those physicians.

“[The parents and I] are partners, from the child’s newborn exam until they are 18 [years old],” she said. “I can’t treat a child in a way that I feel is not best for that child.”

To help inform parents about the importance of vaccination, McDavid said she gives parents an assignment to go on a field trip to a graveyard.

“I want you to go to an old cemetery, walk through, look at the headstones of the babies that died at age 1, 2, 3 years of age," she said, but thanks to vaccines, "people don’t see this anymore, so people don’t know what to be afraid of.”

The study was published as the AAP called on public health authorities today to universally eliminate all vaccine exemptions, unless they are medically necessary. While public school students in the U.S. are required to receive various vaccinations before attending classes, in most states the requirement can be waived by "non-medical" vaccine exemption forms because of a parent's beliefs or religion.

Dr. Geoffrey Simon, board-certified pediatrician and lead author of AAP’s policy statement today, and chairperson of the AAP's Committee on Practice and Ambulatory Medicine, explained the decision as necessary to protect people via herd immunity, where the majority of people being protected helps guard against an outbreak.

“We disenfranchise children and adults who are medically unable to receive the vaccine," Simon said of diminishing herd immunity from lowered vaccine rates. "Who’s to say that creating a risk of developing preventable disease is fair. They deserve a safe school and work environment."

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Purestock(NEW YORK) — There are a growing number of parents that still support their adult children who live at home.

Living with parents is now the most common arrangement for millennials, the term used to refer to adults currently between the ages of 18 and 34, according to a May report from the Pew Research Center.

Ramona Emerson, 29, made a decision to leave the New York magazine industry after five years and move in with her parents, Sharon and Charlie Emerson.

"They were so excited when I said I was going to move home," Emerson told ABC News.

Because the move is only temporary while Emerson takes pre-med classes before starting nursing school in the fall, she thought the move would be fine.

After a few months in, she said she realized the living space at her parents' home was much smaller than she anticipated.

Emerson is an only child and says that her parents are "a little bit obsessed" with her, but "thankfully we do have a shed in the backyard where sometimes I like to go."

Debbie Pincus, a New York and Connecticut-based psychotherapist, suggests setting boundaries to avoid conflicts at home.

"Clarify from the start, you know, let them know what you are okay with, what you're not okay with," Pincus advised parents.

Emerson said her new living situation proves challenging after years of living independently.

"When you've been independent and then to come back and have people watching your every move and I imagine silently judging me, that's probably been the biggest challenge," she said. "The eternal thing is, 'Oh don't you want to put on an jacket?' I get that probably every time I leave the house."

Emerson's father told ABC News he feels his daughter needs some real world advice.

"She also has issues with practical things," Charlie Emerson said. "She lit a chicken on fire...we're pretty knowledgeable about you know how to keep from burning the house down."

Pincus said that clarifying expectations such as curfew, expenses and cleanliness will help make it all work. Another recommendation is setting clear household contributions for adult children, such as doing the dishes, cooking and acting their age.

"You feel so much better if you try as much as you can to act like an adult and your parents will be very happy about that as well," Emerson said.

Sharon Emerson said she would advise other parents to make sure they see their child living at home as an adult.

"If you don't think you like your kid at the stage they're in now...don't do it," she said.

Emerson said she is glad she's had the "really positive" experience of getting to know her parents more as an adult, but is ready to be back on her own.

"I'd do it again...well maybe not again, but I'm glad that I did it," she said.
 
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Jupiterimages/Creatas/Thinkstock(WASHINGTON) -- More than 30,000 cases of various fresh-cut vegetable products are being recalled for potential listeria contamination.

According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Country Fresh, LLC, is recalling the products from retailers in nine states. No illnesses have yet been reported by public health authorities.

The vegetables, which include diced onions, diced peppers, pico de gallo, fajita mix and other products, were shipped to stores in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia. They bear "BEST IF USED BY" dates between August 7 and August 19.

Retailers that sell Country Fresh products include BI-LO, Fresh Point, Harris Teeter supermarkets, Publix supermarkets, QuikTrip shops, The Spinx Company, Wal-Mart stores, and Winn Dixie markets.

"We are treating this incident very seriously," said Max Payen, Country Fresh's Director of Food Safety, "because we want to ensure that our customers are provided with only the safest, most wholesome, and high-quality products available."

The potential contamination was discovered as part of a sample taken at a single retail store by the Georgia Department of Agriculture.

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iStock/Thinkstock(HONG KONG) -- Doctors may find themselves reaching for an iPad instead of the prescription pad for managing anxiety in children before they receive anesthesia for surgery, thanks to findings reported Sunday at the World Congress of Anesthesiologists in Hong Kong.

Researchers from the Hospices Civils de Lyon in France compared two groups of more than 50 children, each about to undergo surgery. In one group, the children received midazolam, a sedative, 20 minutes before anesthesia. The second group was given an electronic tablet to play with instead at the same time. The researchers then compared anxiety levels in the children and their parents at multiple time points, as well as the quality of the induction of anesthesia and parents’ satisfaction with the anesthesia.

They found that giving children tablets was equally effective as the sedative in managing their anxiety. The researchers also found a 22 percent increase in anesthesia nurse satisfaction with the process of anesthesia and a 5.5 percent increase in parent satisfaction with the anesthesia process.

Although this is a meeting presentation and has not yet been published in a peer-reviewed journal, this study provides justification for a cheap intervention that avoids given children medication. It could be claimed the reason they did not find a difference between iPads and the drug is that the study is too small.

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scyther5/iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- Proper contact lens hygiene is nothing to roll your eyes at: A new government report warns that bad habits (like wearing your lenses to bed) can lead to eye infections and possibly permanent injuries.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) examined more than 1,000 cases of contact lens-related infections reported to a federal database over the last decade, and found that nearly 1 in 5 of those infections resulted in eye damage—either a decline in vision, a scarred cornea, or the need for a corneal transplant. Yikes.

But the agency also found that by simply using your contacts the way you're supposed to, you can protect your peepers: About 25% of the reported cases involved behaviors known to put a person at greater risk of eye infection.

“Contact lenses are a safe and effective form of vision correction when worn and cared for as recommended,” said Michael Beach, PhD, director of the CDC’s Healthy Water Program, in a press release about the survey. “However, improper wear and care of contact lenses can cause eye infections that sometimes lead to serious, long-term damage.”

Below, six mistakes you might be making, and what to do instead.

You sleep in your contacts

The enzymes and antibodies that protect the surface of your eyes require oxygen to fight off germs. When your eyes are closed at night, the air supply is reduced; wear your contacts to bed and there's even less oxygen available. The bottom line: When the PJs come on, the contacts should come out.

You handle your lenses with dirty fingers

To avoid transferring oil, dirt, and bacteria to your eyes (ew), clean your hands before you clean your contacts.

You're not rubbing your contacts

Even if you use a ‘no-rub’ contact solution, it's still a good idea: Give your lenses a rub in your (well-cleaned) palm to remove germs and protein buildup.

You don't change your solution daily

As Reena Garg, MD, an assistant professor of ophthalmology at the Icahn School of Medicine in New York City, told Health in a prior interview, "That's like doing your laundry in dirty water." According to the CDC, you should always use fresh multipurpose saline solution (never water!), and don't mix old saline solution with new in your contact case. In fact, you should empty the case after putting in your contacts, rinse it with fresh saline, dry it with a fresh, clean tissue and store it upside down on a clean tissue (with the lids off), until you are ready to use it again.

You shower and swim with your contacts in


The CDC advises keeping your lenses away from water (including pool water) to avoid a rare but potentially blinding infection caused by an amoeba called Acanthamoeba, as well as other types of infections. Bacteria and parasites in water can get caught under your lenses. If you're a swimmer, you may want to invest in prescription goggles.

You leave your lenses in too long


When you're at home and on weekends, give your eyes a break and wear your glasses, says Berkeley, Michigan-based ophthalmologist Steven Shanbom, MD. In a prior interview with Health, he recommended that lens wearers keep their contacts in for no more than 12-14 hours a day.

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mvaligursky/iStock/Thinkstock(TORONTO) -- Two Canadian families are reeling after finding out that their sons were switched at birth.

David Tait Junior, it turns out, was named after the father that raised him, but not after his biological father. DNA tests showed that Tait and childhood friend Leon Swanson were given to the wrong families when they left the hospital.

It's not the first time this mistake was made at the Norway House Indian Hospital though. Last November, two men from another reserve discovered that they, too, had been switched at birth. The government has promised an independent investigation.

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- The rising cost of EpiPens has led many to wonder whether there are cheaper options available on the market.

The drug epinephrine has been around for decades, but the EpiPen, which is made by Mylan, has become the go-to epinephrine auto injector for many people in the U.S. There are multiple reasons why the EpiPen has become so popular, including diminishing competition and the fact that pharmacists in many states cannot automatically substitute a generic alternative.

Recalls from Mylan's competitors have also boosted sales of the EpiPen. Two other companies, AUVI-Q and TwinJect, have recalled their epi injectors over issues with dosage and the device.

There appears to be one other company making an epinephrine auto injector available in the U.S., according to data available from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. That company, Impax Laboratories, creates an epinephrine injector called Adrenaclick, as well as a generic version of the drug.

“The Adrenaclick is at a lower cost than the EpiPen," Mark Donohue, vice president of investor relations and corporate communications at Impax, told ABC News. “Some pharmacies stock it, and if they do not, they should be able to order it in a day or two."

He did, however, acknowledge that the company does not have the ability to manufacture large quantities of the drug.

"We do not have an automated process but we are working on [one],” Donohue said.

The company is “producing as much as we can to provide it at a lower cost to the patient,” he added.

Impax only acquired the rights to Adrenaclick in March 2015, according to Donohue. Market share of Adrenaclick has since grown from 2 percent to the high single digits.

While Mylan has come under fire for raising the price of EpiPen from approximately $100 in 2009 to more than $600 in 2016, it's difficult to tell how much cheaper either Adrenaclick or its generic alternative will be for the consumer. Two pharmacies in Chicago said Adrenaclick costs approximately $500. On GoodRx.com, which compares drug prices at local pharmacies, the generic injector was listed between $144 to $379 with the use of a coupon. The price for Adrenaclick was $466 to $496 with a coupon.

The EpiPen is covered by Medicaid and other insurance plans, so most consumers do not pay full price for it. At least two health insurance companies partially cover the cost of the generic version of Adrenaclick. It was not clear if the generic version was also covered by Medicaid.

However, even if a generic version of the EpiPen was widely available, patients and pharmacists would still face barriers to switching epi injectors. An EpiPen is classified as both a drug and medical device by the FDA. As a result of this classification, pharmacists in 29 states can't simply switch a generic epi injector for an EpiPen the way they could with medications that do not require a device, such as antibiotics.

Dr. Brian Vickery, clinical assistant professor of pediatrics and a pediatric allergist at UNC-Chapel Hill, pointed out another complication for patients: Young children have to be properly trained to use an EpiPen or another epi injector. If a patient or doctor wants to change devices, it means the patient and family members have to re-learn how to use a new device safely.

"There was a time not long ago where there were other drugs on the market ... and they could be substituted and that was an issue because this is a specialized device that requires training and each functions differently," said Vickery.

Since allergists usually recommend that patients have multiple injectors handy, changing epi devices can become burdensome and dangerous. Different devices may be confusing during an anaphylactic allergy attack.

The device is used "in the context of a rapidly evolving, unpredictable and nerve-wracking situation where a patient or the individual with them is turned into a first responder and they have to make a pretty time sensitive reaction," said Vickery. "The last thing we want is for them to pull out a device they don’t know how to use or misuse it.”

In general, epi injectors have become more commonplace after a 2013 law offered grants to schools if they trained personnel on how to use the devices and kept a supply of epinephrine on hand. While the law pertains to epinephrine auto injectors broadly, on the White House website it's called the "EpiPen Law."

Vickery said he expects more doctors and patients will consider switching to a generic option if possible.

Mylan recently said it has given 700,000 EpiPens to schools for free.

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iStock/Thinkstock(MIAMI) -- A Venezuelan woman who gave birth in the U.S. to a daughter with birth defects related to Zika infection, said she is frustrated that there is so little known about the long-term effects of the virus.

Maria Fernanda Ramirez Bolivar spoke to reporters Friday at Jackson Memorial Hospital in Miami, Florida, as her infant daughter Micaela spent most of the time sleeping in her arms.

Bolivar's physician, Dr. Ivan Gonzalez, of UHealth Pediatric Infectious Diseases at Jackson Memorial Hospital, said Bolivar first come to the hospital while pregnant and was concerned that she may have contracted Zika in Venezuela. Gonzalez said doctors immediately decided to check and see if her unborn daughter had sings of microcephaly through an ultrasound. However, before tests could be concluded, Bolivar went into labor.

When Bolivar's daughter, Micaela, was born, doctors found that the infant did not have microcephaly, but they were still concerned the Zika virus could have affected the child.

"The Zika is like a moving target as new information comes out," Gonzalez said. "We decided to go ahead and look for abnormalities."

After doing further tests with a variety of specialists, they found the infant had calcification in her brain and eye damage on her retina. Doctors will continue to monitor the child to see if she develops other issues related to Zika infection in utero.

Bolivar spoke about the fear she felt while pregnant and her frustration in being unable to know more about her daughter's prognosis.

"They keep telling her we don’t know because the virus is too new," Gonzalez said, translating Bolivar's words for reporters. "She’s thankful the baby was born here and the baby has been a blessing for her."

Dr. Delia Rivera-Hernandez, a pediatric infectious diseases specialist at Jackson Memorial Hospital, said the infant may be at risk for developing hearing loss or issues with motor skills, but so far doctors haven't found any extreme developmental issues. Rivera-Hernandez said since the infant is so young, she may be able to bounce back from the brain damage.

"We have faith because of plasticity the brain of the young child can regenerate," Rivera-Hernandez said. "Some of the damage if not reversed can at least be compensated -- that’s our hope."

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- The chief executive of Mylan Pharmaceuticals, which makes the $600 EpiPen allergy treatment, defended her company’s pricing policies in an interview published Friday in The New York Times, saying, “I am running a business.”

CEO Heather Bresch has come under intense scrutiny in recent weeks over the soaring cost of the company’s popular epinephrine injector, which is used to help counteract life-threatening allergic reactions. The drug has risen in price to around $600 from about $100 in 2009, according to medical literature and GoodRx, which lists drug prices at various pharmacies.

But Bresch made no apologies for such pricing: “I am running a business,” she told The New York Times. ”I am a for-profit business. I am not hiding from that.”

Mylan has priced the EpiPen to recover the company’s investment in the product, she told the newspaper.

But even her own father, a U.S. senator, has weighed in on the onslaught of criticism over the EpiPen.

"I am aware of the questions my colleagues and many parents are asking, and frankly, I share their concerns about the skyrocketing prices of prescription drugs,” Sen. Joe Manchin, D-W.V., said Thursday in a statement. “Today I heard Mylan's initial response, and I am sure Mylan will have a more comprehensive and formal response to those questions.

"I look forward to reviewing their response in detail and working with my colleagues and all interested parties to lower the price of prescription drugs and to continue to improve our health care system."

The company did not immediately respond Friday to ABC News’ request for comment.

But in response to the widespread criticism, Mylan Thursday promised to expand a discount program for the medication.

The company released a statement saying it was taking steps to reduce the cost of the EpiPen for uninsured or underinsured users by, in part, providing a savings card to offset the cost by up to $300.

"We recognize the significant burden on patients from continued, rising insurance premiums and being forced increasingly to pay the full list price for medicines at the pharmacy counter,” Bresch said in the company's statement Thursday. “Patients deserve increased price transparency and affordable care, particularly as the system shifts significant costs to them. However, price is only one part of the problem that we are addressing with today's actions.”

The company Thursday said that it will issue a savings card to cover up to $300 for the EpiPen two-pack — 50 percent of the full retail price — and that it will change the eligibility for its patient assistance program to double the number of people covered.

That action, Bresch told The New York Times, would help customers in a way that has the biggest impact: by cutting what they spend out-of-pocket.

Some say, the Times reported today, that her brash leadership has helped patients get the medications they need and improve drug standards.

“I think we mean what we say: You can do good and do well, and I think we strike that balance around the globe,” Bresch told the newspaper.

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Tomasz Gierygowski/Hemera/Thinkstock(WASHINGTON) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is recommending that all donated blood and blood components in the U.S. be tested for the Zika virus as an extra safety measure.

The recommendation comes after dozens of non-travel related cases of Zika have been identified in Florida.

"There is still much uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of Zika virus transmission," Director of the FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Dr. Peter Marks said. "At this time, the recommendation for testing the entire blood supply will help ensure that safe blood is available for all individuals who might need transfusion."

In February, the FDA recommended testing donated blood and blood components in areas with active Zika virus transmission. So far, the agency says, all areas with active transmission are currently in compliance with that guidance.

Dr. Luciana Borio, the FDA's acting chief scientist, said that as the agency gets new scientific information about the disease, additional precautionary measures become necessary.

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Hannah Foslien/Getty Images(MINNEAPOLIS) -- The Minnesota Vikings will kick off its first pre-season game this weekend at a brand new stadium that is already raising questions about its noise level.

The U.S. Bank Stadium in Minneapolis, where the Vikings will face the San Diego Chargers Sunday, hosted a Metallica concert last week that left many of the 50,000 attendees complaining about the noise levels.

"I think I've suffered long-term hearing damage," one concertgoer said on Twitter. "My ears are still ringing," another tweeted.

The stadium claims to have the “largest, transparent ethylene-tetraflouroethylene (ETFE) roof in the nation,” according to its website.

According to the stadium, which is owned and operated by the Minnesota Sports Facilities Authority, the ETFE roof “should make the stadium louder.” ETFE is described as a “more acoustically reflective material.”

Minneapolis-based audiology specialist Dr. David Geddes told ABC News that noise levels can reach up to 105 decibels inside the U.S. Bank Stadium, a level 10 times louder than other NFL football stadiums.

Geddes says any loud noise over 85 decibels could be potentially harmful if a person is exposed to it for a long period of time.

"The thing to remember with noise exposure is it's cumulative," Geddes explained. "So after several decades of attending concerts, football games, you can wind up with a permanent, noise-induced hearing loss."

Kansas City's Arrowhead Stadium boasts the world record for the loudest crowd roar at a sports stadium with 142.2 decibels. To put that number into perspective, it is just over two decibels louder than a jet engine at takeoff.

The Vikings plan to distribute free earplugs at Sunday's game.

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iStock/ThinkstockBy DR. JENNIFER ASHTON, ABC News Senior Medical Contributor

Nothing ruins a good car trip like an upset stomach or, even worse, vomiting from car sickness.

Motion sickness is a disturbance of the vestibular balance system, which includes the inner ear. It’s as if your ears are sensing one movement but your eyes are not sensing that same motion. This mismatch can make you feel sick.

Symptoms of motion sickness can include nausea, headache, dizziness, excessive sweating and increased salivation.

Here’s my prescription for some ways to avoid getting sick:

  • Sit in the front seat or the center of the backseat so you can see straight out the window.
  • Try to avoid strong scents of tobacco or perfume.
  • Chewing gum, looking towards the horizon and using those acupressure wristbands may also help.

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iStock/Thinkstock(SALT LAKE CITY) — According to a study by anthropologists Ryan Schacht and Karen Kramer from the University of Utah, cities with higher male populations often have higher levels of marriage.

Schacht looked at family formation in eight villages in Guyana for his doctoral dissertation in 2014.

He conducted interviews with over 300 people and found that villages with higher female populations had lower rates of commitment from men, but in villages with higher concentrations of males, the men preferred long-term monogamous relationships with one partner.

Schacht also reviewed the available statistics on both Western and non-Western populations and found that rates of monogamy were highest in communities with higher male populations.

Schacht and Kramer tested this against U.S. Census data to gauge the association between male to female population and family dynamics in 2,800 counties in all 50 states. Schacht said that each state had counties with male-dominant and female-dominant populations, but the results from his Guyana study matched the U.S. There were higher rates of marriage in counties with male-heavy populations as opposed to female-biased counties.

According to Schacht, “You get more unmarried men when there are fewer of them. Men may be less interested in committed relationships when they are relatively rare and partners are abundant. Men may be less interested in settling down with a single partner when there are multiple options available.”

“It’s not the excess women who are driving the elevated levels of instability,” he says. “It’s more likely to be from the relatively high proportion of unmarried men.”

Still, the causal link between gender ratios and societal outcomes requires more research, Schacht believes.

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moodboard/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) --  Texas officials are working to understand why more women across the state have been dying either during pregnancy or shortly after. A study published this month has found that maternal mortality rates doubled in Texas between 2011 and 2012 compared to the years before and a new state task force is attempting to understand why the increase occurred.

Dr. Daniel Grossman, Professor at Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences at University of California San Francisco and Investigator at the Texas Policy Evaluation Project, said the findings gave him pause.

"Some of the increase in recent years may be related to better reporting...[and] changes in the way they catch this on death certificates," he explained. But "it does really seem like this is a real increase -- and it's really very concerning."

Researchers at the Population research Center in Maryland uncovered the significant finding about Texas while they were analyzing maternal deaths in the U.S. between 2000 and 2014, according to the study published in the September issue of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

In Texas, the rate of maternal mortality doubled to 18.6 deaths per 100,000 live births, between 2009 and 2010, to approximately 36 deaths per 100,000 births between 2011 and 2012, according to the study.

The researchers did not find a specific cause for the sudden uptick in deaths, but called for more study to be done both in Texas and nationwide, so that researchers can better understand maternal health.

A state sponsored task force, the Maternal Mortality and Morbidity Task Force (MMMTF), reported in July 2016 that cardiac events and elevated blood pressure complications were first and third causes of death. Death related to drug overdose emerged as the second leading cause of maternal death between 2011 and 2012.

Black women have had the largest risk for maternal death, according to the study – accounting for nearly 30 percent of pregnancy-related deaths in that year.

Based on these findings, and the known problem of collecting proper data nationally, the MMMTF recommended programs for awareness of health disparities and improving health access.

They also note that "mental and behavioral health issues, lack of continuity in access to services, and geographic, racial and ethnic health disparities" likely affected these maternal death rates.

The state senate created the multidisciplinary task force in 2013 to address the problem. State-appointed physicians, nurses, researchers, and community advocates studied and reviewed cases, trends and provided recommendations.

They found that 189 women in Texas died from pregnancy related complications between 2011 and 2012.

Grossman said it’s vital that more study is done in Texas to look at both pregnant women’s access to health care during pregnancy and if the nationwide opioid crisis could have affected the increase in mortality rates.

"Whether part of the spike might be related to epidemic of opiate use that might be somehow concentrated, that merits further examination," he told ABC News today. "The other aspect of this that is concerning is the increase started around the same time that women's health services were really being systematically dismantled."

Grossman pointed out that, starting in about 2010, funding for family planning services as well as for Planned Parenthood was diminished in Texas.

"It's definitely something that needs to be explored in more depth," Grossman said of the increasing maternal mortality rate.

In the study published in the Obstetrics and Gynecology, researchers said the research and reporting on maternal mortality needs to be improved. Researchers said it is an "international embarrassment" that the United States has been unable to provide national maternal mortality data since 2007.

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