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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- Malaria may seem like a disease from bygone days to many people in the United States.

But a new study published Monday in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene finds that, every year, more than a thousand patients are hospitalized in the U.S. for malaria infections -- virtually all contracted in other countries -- with some turning deadly.

While malaria used to be endemic in the U.S., the disease, which is usually spread through infected mosquitoes, was effectively eradicated in the states by the 1950's, according to the study authors.

However, malaria is still a massive health problem worldwide with 212 million cases reported globally each year, causing approximately 429,000 deaths, according to the World Health Organization. People who travel outside the U.S. remain susceptible to the disease.

"The number of imported malaria cases has steadily increased in the United States," the study authors wrote. "Similar to other countries that eliminated malaria, this increase has mostly occurred among returned travelers, as well as among foreign visitors and immigrants from malaria-endemic countries."

Malaria is a parasitic disease primarily spread by mosquitoes to humans. Symptoms may appear vague at first including fever, chills and other flu-like symptoms. If untreated, the disease can be fatal. Those traveling to areas where the disease is endemic are at higher risk, though they can take prophylactic medication to reduce the chances of infection.

To understand how people in the U.S. are affected by malaria, researchers from various institutions including the University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Department of Public Health and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) studied national patient data. They found an average of 1,469 annual hospitalizations for malaria in the U.S. between 2000 to 2014.

Researchers found that between 2000 to 2014 there were 22,029 total malaria-related hospitalizations; 4,823 of the cases were designated as "severe," with 182 deaths reported. They used hospital discharge data from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Nationwide Inpatient Sample, which contains about 20 percent of hospital discharge records nationwide.

This group of malaria patients often required multiple days in the hospital. They spent 4.36 days, on average, with a mean bill of $25,789 for all hospitalizations. Men accounted for about 60 percent of these malaria cases and more than than half, 52.5 percent, were black. The highest number of cases -- a combined 71 percent -- were reported in the southern and northeast regions of the U.S.

The actual number of malaria cases may be higher, since some people may not come to the hospital for treatment. The authors estimate an average of 2,128 people may have malaria each year in the U.S.

High numbers of imported malaria increase the chance of a local outbreak, as well. Between 1957 and 2015 there have been "63 outbreaks of locally transmitted mosquito-borne malaria," according to the CDC.

"There are elements of this that are perhaps surprising," said Dr. William Schaffner, infectious disease expert at Vanderbilt University Medical School. "Over 22,000 admissions for malaria in hospitals in the U.S. ... I wouldn't have thought it was that large."

Because many doctors learn about malaria in medical school, but rarely see live cases, Schaffner said, diagnosing the disease at an early stage can be difficult. Patients coming into the ER for treatment may be "the first case they've ever seen."

And though few people contract malaria within the U.S., the study authors note that remains a challenge for treatment.

"Despite the reduction of malaria incidence in developing countries, malaria continues to be an important public health problem in the United States," the authors said. "Despite its elimination in the early 1950s, and the disease burden remains substantial."

Copyright © 2017, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


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ABC News(MILFORD, Va.) -- A toddler danced the night away Friday after attending a teen's high school prom.

Taylor Schafer, 17, a student at Caroline High School in Milford, Virginia, invited Finn Blumenthal, 2, to accompany her to the dance. Finn was born with a congenital heart defect, which causes life-threatening medical challenges.

When Finn was born, he survived 10 surgeries, including three procedures on his heart, mom Kelly Blumenthal of Fredericksburg, Virginia, told ABC News in February.

"When you're presented with a medically challenged child that has an uncertain future, you feel kind of robbed, especially of certain life experiences and milestones ... but he has gone to prom and had a great night," Blumenthal told ABC News today.

"That's something that as a parent, brings a lot of joy. Him being able to look back at photos and look back at the happy night, that's all because of Taylor."

Blumenthal met Taylor in October through a mutual acquaintance.

"He had so many limits on what he was allowed to do in the past and seeing him overcome those limits [is] wonderful," Taylor told ABC News in February.

At the time, Blumenthal called Taylor’s gesture "a dream come true."

She said, "The fact that I can check this off the list no matter what is a relief. I can't repay her for that."

On the special night last week, Finn wore his black tuxedo and gave a corsage to Taylor. He got to ride in the limo to the prom, danced to his favorite song, "Rawr" by Katy Perry, and was even crowned "prom prince," Blumenthal said.

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Scott Clarke / ESPN Images(LOS ANGELES) -- Serena Williams announced her pregnancy last week, and the soon-to-be mom already has sweet words for her future child.

"My dearest baby, you gave me the strength I didn’t know I had," the 35-year-old tennis superstar wrote in the caption of an Instagram post. "You taught me the true meaning of serenity and peace. I can't wait to meet you. I can't wait for you to join the players' box next year."

The post also coincided with the birthday of Williams' fiance, Alexis Ohanian, who is the co-founder of Reddit.

Williams concluded the sweet note with her new signature: "Your Mommy."

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iStock/Thinkstock(ARLINGTON, Va.) — A 10-year-old girl’s musical dreams have come true thanks to university students and cutting-edge technology.

Isabella Cabrera of Virginia was born without a left hand. On Thursday, she received a custom-made prosthesis created by five bioengineering students at George Mason University so that she could play the violin.

“I think it’s going to help me by having more control with the strings and the notes,” Cabrera told ABC affiliate WJLA-TV.

The process of creating the hand began last fall and included 100 hours of design and testing. The prosthesis was completed using a 3-D printer.

Yassar Al-Hindi, who helped create Cabrera's prosthesis, put it simply: “Making an impact on someone’s life — it’s just a very good feeling.”

Copyright © 2017, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


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ABC News(NEW YORK) -- Facebook chief operating officer Sheryl Sandberg was on vacation in Mexico in 2015 with her husband and friends when her husband, tech executive Dave Goldberg, passed away unexpectedly of a cardiac arrhythmia.

Sandberg, 47, was left as a single mother of her two children with Goldberg. She writes about recovering from the tragedy and working through the grief in her new book, Option B: Facing Adversity, Building Resilience, and Finding Joy.

The book -- which Sandberg co-wrote with her friend Adam Grant, a psychologist at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania -- takes its name from a moment when Sandberg was grappling with not having Goldberg on hand to attend a father-child event with one of their children.

A friend, Sandberg writes in the book, told her, "Option A is not available. So let’s just kick the s--- out of option B.”

Here are three takeaways from Option B on grief and recovering from tragedy:

1. What you should (and shouldn’t) say to someone who is grieving

Sandberg writes that after Goldberg's death she discovered she was "sometimes the friend who avoided painful conversations" because she worried about upsetting the person who was hurt.

"Losing Dave taught me how ludicrous that was," Sandberg wrote, adding that she often "felt invisible" herself after Goldberg's death and was "shocked" by friends who did not ask how she was doing.

“The elephant is always there. By ignoring it, those who are grieving isolate themselves and those who could offer comfort create distance instead," Sandberg wrote. "Both sides need to reach out. Speaking with empathy and honesty is a good place to start. You can’t make the elephant go away. But you can say, ‘I see it. I see you’re suffering. And I care about you.'"

Sandberg also said she eventually found the courage to explain that it was more helpful if people asked her the more specific question of how she was feeling today, in the moment.

"I did what proved so difficult to do with friends and colleagues face to face: I described how a casual greeting like 'How are you?' hurt because it didn’t acknowledge that anything out of the ordinary had happened," she wrote. "I pointed out that if people instead asked, 'How are you today?' it showed that they were aware that I was struggling to get through each day."

2. Empathy is nice but encouragement is better

Sandberg draws upon her own experience of returning to work at Facebook to explain how she actually lost self-confidence when colleagues stepped in to pick up the slack for her.

"As people saw me stumble at work, some of them tried to help by reducing pressure. When I messed up or was unable to contribute, they waved it off, saying, 'How could you keep anything straight with all you’re going through?,'" she wrote. "In the past, I had said similar things to colleagues who were struggling, but when people said it to me, I discovered that this expression of sympathy actually diminished my self-confidence even more. What helped was hearing, 'Really, I thought you made a good point in that meeting and helped us make a better decision.' Bless you. Empathy was nice, but encouragement was better."

3. Encourage resilience by avoiding the three P's

Sandberg highlights the work of psychologist Martin Seligman who identified three P's that can stunt someone’s recovery.

  • Personalization: The belief that we are at fault.
  • Pervasiveness: The belief that an event will affect all areas of our life.
  • Permanence: The belief that the aftershocks of the event will last forever.

"The hardest of the 3 P’s for me to process was permanence," Sandberg wrote about her own grief. "For months, no matter what I did, I felt like the crushing anguish would always be there … When we’re suffering, we tend to project it out indefinitely … People also overestimated the negative impact of other stressful events.”

Speaking of the resilience that can emerge from moving past the three P's, Sandberg said it is what allows you to "breathe again."

"Resilience comes from deep within us and from support outside us. It comes from gratitude for what’s good in our lives and from leaning into the suck," she wrote. "It comes from analyzing how we process grief and from simply accepting that grief ... And in those moments that we’re able to summon our resilience, we realize that when life pulls you under, you can kick against the bottom, break the surface, and breathe again.”

Sheryl Sandberg is a member of the board for Disney, the parent company of ABC News.

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ABC News(NEW YORK) -- Author Jessica Seinfeld opened up about her new cookbook, Food Swings, in an interview with ABC News' Good Morning America, and shared the special recipe that she made for her husband, Jerry Seinfeld, on their very first date.

"I created this book with the concept of when you live in virtue you need some vice and when you live in vice, you can definitely use some virtue," Jessica Seinfeld told ABC News of the book that features more than 125 recipes on either side of the food spectrum -- from super healthy to super indulgent.

Seinfeld added that learning how to balance different tastes and wants is something she does constantly as she searches for dishes that will please her husband and three kids.

"People ask me all the time, 'What's your favorite recipe in the book?'" Seinfeld said. "I'm like, 'Anything that my family likes and I get no complaints about.'"

Seinfeld shared her healthy, vegetarian, gluten-free and dairy-free chili recipe on GMA.

She added that she has to make the vegetarian chili "hearty" because her husband would not eat if it were "wimpy."

One tip Seinfeld has for cooks is to keep your kitchen super organized as you cook, and one way she recommends staying organized is by pre-chopping all of your ingredients before cooking.

Another tip she shared was to load up healthy dishes with a lot of spices in order to give them more of a flavor boost.

"It's a great way to make simple things feel more sophisticated," Seinfeld said. "So if you're a beginner cook, I’m like, 'Use a ton of spices.'"

Seinfeld said that her children do not often help her out in the kitchen because "they're not into it."

"I am such a control freak that I don't really love cooking with them anyway," the mother of three joked. "I know you're not supposed to say that."

When she is not cooking for her own family, Seinfeld is committed to helping out other families in need by donating vital baby supplies, such as diapers and strollers, through her charity, the Good Plus Foundation.

Seinfeld also shared her recipe for Chicken Parmesan on GMA, which she said she cooked for her husband on their first date.

"When Jerry asked me on our first date, he said, 'Where do you want to go for dinner tonight?' and I said 'Oh, I am so happy to cook. I'll make Chicken Parmesan,'" Seinfeld said. "And so our first date was around this dish."

Food Swings will be in bookstores nationwide Tuesday.

Copyright © 2017, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


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iStock/ThinkstockBy DR. JENNIFER ASHTON, ABC News Senior Medical Contributor

If you're pregnant and you’ve got a headache, or maybe your back hurts, should you reach for some Tylenol? And does it matter what trimester you’re in?

Studies have shown that children whose mothers took acetaminophen -- the key ingredient in Tylenol -- during pregnancy had a greater risk of developing behavioral problems than those whose mothers did not.

The risk was greatest when the drug was taken during the third trimester. But the data here is not conclusive.

During pregnancy, it is standard practice to air on the side of caution -- this means not taking a medication unless absolutely necessary and approved by your obstetrician or midwife. However, sometimes it’s not only indicated but important for pregnant women to take medication. It comes down to risk versus benefit.

Copyright © 2017, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


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Jason Kempin/Getty Images for EGPAF(LOS ANGELES) -- Richard Simmons is back home recovering after three days at Cedars Sinai Medical Center battling severe indigestion.

Simmons took to social media thanking hospital staff and law enforcement, writing “They make you feel good even though you’re in the hospital for feeling bad.”

He offered further praise of his medical caregivers, emergency responders and the U.S. military, saying, “They were so helpful and kind as I returned home. Let’s take a minute and all be thankful for medical professionals, police, firefighters and our brave military forces here and around the world. They risk so much every day to make us well and keep us protected. God Bless all of them.”

Michael Catalano, Simmons' longtime manager, confirmed to ABC News that Simmons returned home sooner than expected Thursday afternoon. “Richard is happy to be back home and thankful to everyone who has reached out. Richard is in good spirits.”

Last week, Catalano released a statement to ABC News saying, "After a few days of battling severe indigestion and discomfort while eating, we agreed it was best for him to seek treatment.”

Simmons, 68, who over the past few years has vanished from the public eye, signed a business deal for "merchandising, endorsements and licensing opportunities," Catalano announced earlier this month.

Catalano told ABC News on April 6 that Simmons pursued the deal.

The new venture comes on the heels of questions in recent years about Simmons' health, as were put forward in a viral podcast on the fitness icon's disappearance from public view, titled "Missing Richard Simmons."

Catalano commented on his client's relatively low profile, telling ABC News that Simmons just wants a break from fame. Catalano's comments echoed what Simmons told "Entertainment Tonight" last year.

"No one should be worried about me," Simmons said. "It was time for me to take some time to be by myself."

Copyright © 2017, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


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Courtesy Russ Saputo(NEW YORK) -- An Indiana dad brought his little girl and a second special date to an annual father-daughter dance to ensure no one would be left out.

Russ Saputo took both his daughter, Angelina, 10, and her best friend Ellcy Miller, 9, to the event at Trinity Lutheran School in Elkhart last month. Ellcy's dad died in 2016.

"I said [to Angelina], 'I know it's your night, but what do you think about sharing and we can double date?'" Saputo said. "It was an easy choice for me. Whatever makes these little girls smile is what I'll do. Ellcy is a sweetheart and she and Angelina have been friends since kindergarten."

Angelina and Ellcy have stayed friends even though they now attend different schools. In May 2016, one month after her father passed away, Saputo had accompanied Ellcy to her school's father-daughter dance at St. Thomas the Apostle in Elkhart. Then both families decided to make it a tradition and invite Ellcy to accompany Saputo again, along with Angelina, to the dance at Trinity Lutheran.

On the big night, Angelina's mother, Marisa Saputo, and Ellcy's mom, Kellan White, curled the girls' hair and snapped photos.

At the event, Saputo and the girls had a blast dancing like they were "sizzling bacon."

"It was really very touching and I totally think he's the greatest father," White told ABC News. "He treats Ellcy like she's his own. She can tell him anything -- that's the type of relationship they have together and Angelina and Ellcy are sisters. They just have different mothers and fathers."

Saputo plans on bringing the girls on a "second date" for ice cream in his 1969 Camaro that they love so much, he said.

Copyright © 2017, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


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FDA(NEW YORK) -- Some packages of potato chips are being pulled from shelves over Salmonella concerns.

Frito-Lay announced Friday it is voluntarily recalling Jalapeño Flavored Lay’s Kettle Cooked potato chips and Jalapeño Flavored Miss Vickie’s Kettle Cooked potato chips. The snack-maker said it was because of a supplier's recent recall of a seasoning that included jalapeño powder possibly tainted with Salmonella.

"Although no Salmonella was found in the seasoning supplied to Frito-Lay, the company has decided to recall these products out of an abundance of caution," a release from the Food and Drug Administration said.

No chip consumers have reported illnesses related to the recall, according to the FDA, but if you have purchased the chips, the FDA advises not to consume them.

The recall does not include Jalapeño Cheddar Flavored Lay’s Kettle Cooked 40% Less Fat potato chips.

For more information on the recall, you can check out the release from the FDA.

Copyright © 2017, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


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Courtesy Marsha Aizumi(ARCADIA, Calif.) -- Marsha Aizumi’s daughter was a student at Arcadia High School in Arcadia, California in 2006, when she was struggling with her sexuality. Bullied and anxiety-ridden, the high school senior was ready to drop out. She was suffering from panic attacks and was diagnosed with agoraphobia, fear of being in crowds, public places, or open areas. Aizumi, concerned for her child, approached the principal and vice principal, and together they came up with a solution that would allow the student to take part in independent study and get her high school diploma.

A couple of years later, Aizumi’s daughter came out as transgender and began the transition to male, a difficult process involving hormone therapies, surgeries and a legal name change to Aiden.

“There was, like, every day more light came back into his eyes,” Aizumi said. “I saw him walk by a mirror. And he stopped. And he looked at himself in the mirror. And I knew at that moment, he said to himself, ‘Gosh, this is who I always thought I should be.’”

Today, Aiden, 28, is pursuing his master’s degree, married, and is an activist in the LGBTQ community as president of the Pasadena chapter of PFLAG, an advocacy group.

PFLAG calls itself the nation's largest and oldest organization uniting people who are LGBTQ with their families and allies, providing support, education, and advocacy. According to PFLAG, it was “the first national organization to include transgender people in its mission, and has been fully inclusive of the entire LGBTQ community ever since.”

For more information on LGBTQIA issues and resources for LGBTQIA individuals and families, please visit

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ABC News(NEW YORK) -- Two years ago, the celebrated Olympic hero and famous reality TV show dad then known as Bruce Jenner revealed to the world in an exclusive interview with Diane Sawyer that he had struggled his entire life with gender identity.

Now, two years later, Caitlyn Jenner has fully transitioned to living as female. She detailed this journey in her new memoir, The Secrets of My Life, out on April 25, and sat down with Sawyer for a second exclusive interview to talk about what becoming a woman has been like for her and the highs and lows along the way.

Overall, Jenner said she is still a “work in progress.”

“I’ve grown into Caitlyn,” she said. “It’s tough to take 65 years of being Bruce and being male, and then like, overnight, everything changes. At first you don’t know how to handle it.”

In Sawyer’s first interview, Jenner said, “Bruce lives a lie -- she is not a lie.” Today, Caitlyn Jenner said she is “happy” and “peaceful.”

“[There is] peace in my soul,” she said. “All of that confusion has left me.”

When she ventures outside her Malibu home, Jenner said she’ll take 20 to 40 selfies a day with strangers who walk up to her. Even a typical trip to the supermarket is met with people pulling out their phones, asking for photos with her. Jenner said she tries to accommodate all of them, no matter who asks.

“I had a guy actually ... ask for a selfie and said, ‘Oh Bruce, could you give me a selfie?’ And I looked at him. Nobody’s called me that in two years almost now, and I said, ‘No problem,’” she said. “I want them to walk away saying, ‘Oh Caitlyn Jenner was so nice’ .... that transpeople, yes, are approachable ... and they are a vital part of our society.”

Once she began her transition, Jenner traveled a long road of hormone therapy, surgery and dealing with a world of criticism from all sides.

The first time she appeared publicly as Caitlyn Jenner was in the bombshell July 2015 Vanity Fair cover photo, in which she was clad in a white body suit and featured with long, sweeping brown hair and makeup. The headline? “Call me Caitlyn.”

“My feeling on that picture, I know, my kids that thought, ‘You know what? It’s a little too much,’” Jenner said. “But from my standpoint, I had suffered for 65 years, OK? To have a beautiful shot of my authentic self was important.

“And the shock value,” she continued. “I wanted to end the old Bruce, my old life ... and that picture did it.”

Four months after that cover came out, Jenner took another brave step into the spotlight when she appeared in a long, white gown in front of 6,000 people at the ESPY Awards, a ceremony that honors excellence in athletic achievements. On stage, Jenner, who became a national hero after she won the decathlon at the 1976 Olympics, faced her peers as a woman for the time as she received the Arthur Ashe Award for Courage.

 “I had been to the ESPYs so many times ... kind of a scary place to go,” Jenner said.

In the audience that night were superstars in every sport, including Derek Jeter, Brett Favre and Alex Rodriguez, and Jenner said she couldn’t look at any of them during her speech. She worried that some of the athletes in the audience would see her and think, “What a freak.”

“I still wonder about that,” she said. “Some guys can accept it, some guys can’t.”

She said she only got through the speech by thinking about the thousands of transgender people across the country who live in fear of bullying, homicide, discrimination and ridicule. According to the National Center for Transgender Equality, in the largest national survey of transgender adults, 40 percent said they once attempted suicide.

“If you want to call me names, make jokes, doubt my intentions, go ahead, because the reality is, I can take it,” Jenner said. “But for the thousands of kids out there coming to terms with being true to who they are, they shouldn’t have to take it.”

Back when Jenner first emerged as Caitlyn, she said she did so with optimism and was unprepared for what was to come.

“There was a lot of hope there,” she said. “Have I, in the last two years, had a bigger dose of reality? Absolutely. … I knew absolutely nothing.”

After Jenner spoke out two years ago about being transgender, dozens of young people came forward to share their stories.

Growing up in Tarrytown, New York, in the late 1950s, Jenner said she was about 8 or 9 years old when she secretly started wearing dresses from her mother’s closet. She kept this to herself for years, not knowing who to talk to about it at a time before the internet existed.

After becoming a household name for winning the decathlon at the 1976 Olympics, Jenner became a motivational speaker and said she would sometimes go out on stage secretly wearing a bra and pantyhose underneath a suit.

For decades, Jenner’s first two ex-wives and sister Pam Mettler kept the secret of her gender identity struggle. The circle expanded two years ago when Jenner told her mother and her children. Jenner has six biological children -- Burt, Cassandra, Brandon, Brody, Kendall and Kylie -- and four stepchildren -- Kourtney, Kim, Khloe and Rob Kardashian.

In the '80s, Jenner said she suffered from severe depression and isolated herself, pulling away from seeing her children. She started taking female hormones, but at the time, Jenner was so frightened of being discovered and of humiliation, she said she resigned herself to living a lie -- thinking that maybe there would be an instruction in her will to be buried as “her.”

“I thought that most of my life,” Jenner said. “I said, ‘If I go and when I’m buried,’ yeah, I wanted to be dressed as her because that’s the way I was going to heaven.

“I would say I would kind of shock everybody when they come and visit the casket,” she added.

In her book, Jenner describes the years of trying to deal with this internal struggle. Shortly before she came out publicly as transgender, she underwent facial feminization surgery.

Only a small percentage of transgender people go on to get what is called the “final surgery” or “gender confirmation surgery.” Jenner wrote that she had the “final surgery” in January 2017.

“I do mention in the book everything I did,” Jenner told Sawyer. “But I wasn’t less of a woman the day before I had the surgery than I was the day after I had the surgery, because that did not define who I am as a human being.”

Jenner said that while she chose to write about her own decision in the book, she emphasized that it is personal and private.

“That doesn’t mean in the future that I have to talk about it, that I’m going to dwell. The media may but I’m not going to dwell on that subject,” she said. “And I would make a suggestion to all people out there -- don’t ask the question. It’s not an appropriate question to ask any transperson.”

After she came out as transgender, Jenner received widespread praise, but then stumbled through several pitfalls in trying to navigate the sensitivities of her new world.

She appeared on The Ellen DeGeneres Show in September 2015 and seemed hesitant when the talk show host asked her if she supported marriage equality -- she now tells Sawyer she is 100 percent in favor of same-sex marriage. Then Jenner was criticized for comments she made during a November 2015 Buzzfeed interview, in which she said the hardest part of being a woman was “figuring out what to wear.”

Her transition was the subject of her E! docu-series, I Am Cait, which tackled some important issues in the transgender community, but was also accused of being tone deaf for including scenes with makeup, clothes, drinking wine and “problems of privilege.” It was canceled after two seasons.

Despite those criticisms, Jenner said she still feels and sees the hardships facing the transgender community today.

“At the beginning of this whole thing, yes, I knew absolutely nothing,” she said. “Yes, I made mistakes. On some subjects, I think I was insensitive, honestly, because I just didn’t know any better.”

Jenner has been the target of not only relentless paparazzi but also transgender supporters who claimed she was not representative of their community. Jenner said there have been vicious attacks against her online.

But the kindest thing she said she heard from someone was, “I love you for what you’re doing,” including from “people who have ... thought about suicide and said they wouldn’t do it.”

Jenny Boylan, a professor and GLAAD board chair who also appeared on I Am Cait, and author of the new novel “Long Black Veil,” said Jenner “absolutely” saved lives by going public with her story.

“She didn’t know anything,” Boylan said. “I know some people roll their eyes at Caitlyn. And I would ask them if they have ever had to do anything this hard as Cait had to do, and I would ask them if they have gotten everything right the first time in their lives.”

In the two years Jenner has grappled with her new identity, the country has erupted with debates over transgender rights, from wading through proper pronoun usage to facing North Carolina’s “bathroom bill” controversy. While all of this seems confusing to some, Boylan, herself transgender, said it can be a threat for others.

“The fear is that the world is becoming an unstable place and that if there's anything that we can depend on, it's that there are men and that there are women,” she said.

Jenner, a lifelong Republican, admits that she voted for candidate Donald Trump in the 2016 election, saying it was because she thought he would bring jobs and a smaller government, and she supported his inclusion of the LGBT community. But Jenner said Trump broke her trust when, about a month into his presidency, he repealed an Obama-era directive to make it a civil right under Title IX law for transgender people to use the bathroom of their choice.

“Here’s the deal breaker with the Republican Party,” Jenner said. “And the deal breaker is, 'You mess with my community ... you don’t give us equality and a fair shot, I’m coming after you.'”

And Jenner did go public, posting a video on YouTube in which she called the “bathroom bill” controversy “a disaster.” She said she has not spoken to Trump since she said hello to him at an inauguration cocktail party.

“He wanted me to come play golf with him,” Jenner said. “At that time, I thought it was a pretty good idea, but since Title IX -- it’s not a good idea and so I won’t be playing golf with him. ... Would I meet with him privately on this issue? Absolutely.”

Over the past two years, Jenner said she has learned a great deal about the transgender community, including what are acceptable or appropriate questions to ask or topics to cover, from talking with experts, other transgender people and parents of transgender kids.

ABC News recently hosted a small event where Jenner had a conversation with parents, school administrators and religious community members to talk about both sides of the debate.

Jenner said that moving forward she wants to concentrate on raising money for transgender causes. She has already raised $1.3 million with MAC Cosmetics and said she wants to ask other corporations for help. Jenner is also starting a foundation, the Caitlyn Jenner Foundation, to support transgender causes. But she fears this country will not see “full acceptance” of transgender rights in her lifetime.

"Just like with everything in life, you're not going to get full acceptance," she said. “Is it going to get better? I hope so. And I hope that I'm part of that.”

“I'm playing in the fourth quarter of life,” Jenner added. “I don't have that many years left. I'm playing in the fourth quarter.”

Jenner said she has no regrets about her transition. She dedicated her memoir to her brother, who died right after the 1976 Olympics, and her father, a decorated soldier who fought in World War II.

“The reason I dedicated it to them,” she said, “[was] because they are the only two in my family who have never heard this story.”

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- As the most decorated Olympic swimmer in history, Michael Phelps is used to spending time in the pool. And now that he’s a dad, he’s passing on safe pool practices and the importance of water conservation to his son, Boomer.

“I think the biggest thing is just to get him to be water safe,” Phelps told ABC News. “Trying to get more kids water safe -- we lose way too many kids in the water every year.”

Whether the nearly 1-year-old Boomer will follow in his father’s competitive footsteps, Phelps said it’s far too early to say, but he said he and wife Nicole Johnson will support whatever he chooses.

“For right now, if he is able to be water safe and he’s able to fall in love with the sport, that’s great,” Phelps, whose foundation works to promote water safety, said. “If not, I won’t be too disappointed. Growing up, my mother was always very supportive of things I did and wanted to do. I was able to just fall in love with the sport, so it turned into this.”

 He said his family is also concerned with conserving water and he’s recently partnered with Colgate’s #EveryDropCounts campaign.

“For me, growing up, obviously I spent a lot of time in the pool and around water,” Phelps, 31, said. “If you begin to think about what you’re doing on a daily basis and how much water we’re actually wasting, it’s mind-blowing. Think about if you brush your teeth for two minutes twice a day, you’re wasting 4 to 5 gallons of water if you leave the water running. And that’s just one person.”

 The 28-time Olympic medalist -- who's said that the 2016 Rio Olympics would be his last -- is using downtime to enjoy fatherhood.

“The last year has gone by so fast. It’s hard to imagine that he’s 1 year old coming up,” he said. “So many parents have said things to me like, ‘Watch how fast the time goes, and before you know it they’re graduating from high school.’ As weird as that sounds, I now see how true it is. We’re taking it moment by moment and step by step and enjoying every single little detail of him."

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James Doherty(NASHVILLE, Tenn.) -- This Batman-loving couple has some out-of-this-world news to share: they’re pregnant!

James and Alisha Doherty of Nashville announced their new bundle of joy with a super hero-themed photo shoot.

“I actually can’t remember who had the idea,” James, 27, told ABC News. “She’s a good sport when it comes to that sort of thing. I don’t really have to twist her arm to do this sort of thing.”

The fun-loving duo dress in their Batman costumes as a hobby, wearing the suits to birthdays, charities and fundraisers when asked. James makes the capes himself but buys the bodysuit pieces from Iconic FX and UD replicas.

“We don’t really charge for it. We just do it for fun,” he said. “I buy the pieces from a friend of mine. I get them and put them together. This suit, in particular, the torso and the legs, is a motorcycle suit. And part of it is rubber. The capes I make myself. That’s generally how I make the income to keep the hobby up.”

Alisha is 12 weeks pregnant and due on Halloween, “which is great for our costuming hobbies,” said James.

The proud parents, who do not know the sex of the baby yet, “couldn’t be more excited.”

The couple already showed off a tiny Robin costume for their new baby in their photo shoot. It's likely the first of many.

“Maybe not as a baby, but definitely as it grows up we’ll have some pretty cool costumes,” James said with a laugh. “We love Halloween and dressing up.”

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iStock/Thinkstock(BOSTON) -- Days after his death, Aaron Hernandez's brain will be examined for signs of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) at Boston University, according to ABC affiliate WCVB-TV.

At the time of his death, Hernandez was serving a life sentence for killing Odin Lloyd in 2013. Under Massachusetts law, this 2015 first-degree murder conviction may be vacated because Hernandez died while the verdict was under appeal. Hernandez's death was ruled a suicide by the Massachusetts State Medical Examiner on Thursday after he was found hanging from a bedsheet in his prison cell earlier this week.

Hernandez will be the latest former NFL player to be examined by the Boston University Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Center, which has found signs of CTE in 90 deceased players.

Here's more information on how experts look for this mysterious illness, which can only be diagnosed after death.

What is CTE?

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy is a neurodegenerative disease that can cause the brain to atrophy and change over time. It is believed to be caused by repeated blows to the head -- especially concussive injuries -- although researchers are also investigating if genetics could be a component in the development of CTE.

Dr. Brian Appleby, a neurologist in the Brain Health and Memory Center at the University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, told ABC News that there are specific types of blows to the head that predispose someone to the disease.

Appleby said these are typically "high velocity blows," including ones that are similar to those received by "wide receivers or cornerbacks who run really fast and then stop all of a sudden."

He added that these kinds of blows can also affect members of the military who are "too close to an IED explosion."

Additionally, repeated head traumas "immediately after each other" are associated with increased CTE risk, Appleby said.

How do researchers find CTE?

CTE can only be diagnosed during a posthumous examination of the brain. Tell-tale changes in the frontal lobe of the brain are one indicator of the disease, Appleby said.

"By looking at the structure of the brain, they [can] see shrinkage and atrophy at the frontal temporal lobe," Appleby said. "That can affect mood and behavior."

Researchers will also search Hernandez's brain for signs of tau buildup. Tau is a microscopic protein that helps the brain function. But deposits of tau are associated with a host of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's. The appearance of tau buildups in a brain with CTE, however, are unique.

That's one reason why CTE "looks different than any other neurodegenerative condition," Appleby explained.

What are the symptoms of CTE?

CTE symptoms can be frustratingly broad and vague. The Boston University CTE Center describes an extensive list of symptoms including "memory loss, confusion, impaired judgment, impulse control problems, aggression, depression, and, eventually, progressive dementia."

Appleby said in some cases, the disease can result in symptoms similar to ALS or amyotrophic laterals sclerosis, which can result in a person losing control of their muscles.

Who gets CTE?

The disease used to be considered a disease that primarily affected former boxers, but it has also been found in former football players, hockey players, and military veterans. Playing these sports into adulthood isn't necessarily why people get CTE; some trauma to the brain in childhood may cause CTE to develop later on.

CTE has been diagnosed in people as young as 17.

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